Siberia refers, in the broadest sense, to the entire North Asian part of the Russian Federation. It is bordered to the west by the Urals, to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Pacific and to the south by the People's Republic of China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan.
Siberia covers about three-quarters of the Russian territory and is about 13.1 million square kilometers; thus it is about 3.5 million km² larger than the People's Republic of China (about 9.6 million km²), the largest independent state in Asia.
Siberia means five out of the eight major Russian landscapes: the Great Western Siberian Lowland , the North Siberian Lowlands, the Mid-Yakut Lowlands, the Mid-Siberian Highlands, and the South Siberian Mountains. East Siberia (two other large landscapes east of the Lena) and the southeastern regions of Russia between Amur and the Pacific coast, however, are also referred to as Russian Far East.
Siberia is divided from north to south into tundra, taiga, forest steppe and steppe. The tundra is mostly flat. There grow mainly small shrubs, grasses, upholstery and moss plants and lichens. The taiga is largely flat. There are coniferous forests, swamps and peat bogs . In the west, spruce and pine dominate , in the east more larch . The forest steppe is flat to shallow. There are often erosions here and the snow cover is very thin. In the steppe there are many grasses and herbs, in the forest steppe are especially birch.
In most regions of Siberia, there is a pronounced continental climate: Relatively hot summers (up to +40 ° C) are replaced by extremely cold winters (down to -72 ° C). Often the land is covered by snow cover for up to nine months. The landscape is largely dominated by boreal forests (taiga), in the Arctic regions treeless tundra prevails . In between there exists a transitional form with the forest tundra zones. In the south the taiga passes into steppe.
Large parts of Siberia are occupied by permafrost (permanently frozen soil ), which thaw only superficially in the warm season. Dew and rainwater can not seep in there. The waterlogging leads in the short summer to an extreme mosquito wealth . The fact that the soil under buildings and traffic thaws more than normal, creates considerable problems in their construction and maintenance. The permafrost includes the tundra and large parts of the taiga and extends east of Lake Baikal to its southern edge - and the southern border of the Russian national territory. About one third of Siberia has continuous permafrost, especially the Republic of Sakha ( Yakutia) and their northwestern and northeastern neighboring areas. About half of Siberia has permafrost soils in addition to completely thawing areas. Only the extreme southwest and narrow stripe areas on the middle Amur and on the Pacific coast have no permafrost.
On the coast of south-eastern Kamchatka , the birch forest tundra becomes a birch forest; with the volcano Korjakskaja Sopka. The cold pole of the inhabited world is located in the East Siberian Oimyakon (south of Verkhoyansk).
So, when you think about Norilsk weather, you have to consider that the city is in Siberia, right?!