Norilsk: Siberia rivers and lakes

Norilsk: Siberia rivers and lakes

Siberian lake

The Lake Baikal is located in the South Siberian mountains, with 1642 m depth of the deepest lake and with a volume of 23,615 cubic kilometers of water-rich freshwater lake in the world. It contains about one fifth of the world's existing liquid freshwater.

Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean

  • The 3650 km long Ob has an average discharge of about 13,000 m³ / s (1995) and drains 2.43 million km² of western Siberia and Kazakhstan into the Arctic Ocean . It rises as Katun in the Altai Mountains. It has a 1000 km long and up to 60 km wide estuary , the Obbusen . Its main tributaries are from south to north:
  • The Tschulym , 1799 km long right tributary, comes with its right source river White Ijus on 2023 km. Both spring up in the Sayan Mountains .
  • The Irtysch , 4248 km long left tributary, rises on the south side of the Mongolian Altai in the Dsungarei , reached by the Dzungarian Porte Kazakhstan and only 1500 km further Siberia.
  • The 2450 km long Ishim , left tributary of the Irtysh, comes from the Kazakh steppe and reached only in the lower reaches of Siberia.
  • The other left tributary Tobol , 1591 km long, rises in the southeastern foothills of the Urals mountains in Kazakhstan. More than half of its river lies on Russian territory.
Ship lift at Yenisei river

Ship lift at Yenisei river

  • The 4092 km long Yenisei has an average discharge of about 20,000 m³ / s (1995) and drains 2.44 million km² of Siberia and Mongolia . Its estuary is about 500 km long. Its main tributaries flow from the right. List in descending order of mouths:
  • The Angara is the only outflow of Lake Baikal. It leaves the lake not far from its southern end and flows in a northwesterly direction through the Irkutsk Reservoir , at the dam Irkutsk is located. A little further north of this city, in which the coming from the southwest Irkut terminates, she passes Angarsk. A few kilometers below the city, the Angara River flows through the large Bratsk Reservoir , where it flows into the extreme south of the Central Siberian mountainous region. In the lake it flows to the coming from the southwest Oka, about where it reaches the city Bratsk . Between Irkutsk and Bratsk the Angara is navigable.
  • The Selenga is an influx of Lake Baikal and thus one of the Angara. The upper two-thirds of their run belong to Mongolia.
  • The 2989 km long Untere Tunguska rises 100 km southeast of the Stony Tunguska and is separated in the upper reaches only by a ridge of the valley of the Lena. In the Yenisei it flows 600 km downstream of the stony Tunguska.
  • The Olenjok is a 2292 km long stream in the Krasnoyarsk Krai and in Yakutia, which rises in the middle of the mountains.
  • The 4400 km long Lena rises only about 5 km from the central western shore of Lake Baikal in the arch between the lake and the Angara. It drains 2.46 million km² and contributes an average of 16,400 m³ / s (1994) in its 200 km wide delta into the Arctic Ocean , here called Laptewsee . Their largest tributaries are in descending order of junctions:
  • The strongly winding Witim rises east of Lake Baikal in the mountains between the lake and the Ingoda . It is 1968 km long.
  • The 1436 km long Oljokma springs between Witim and Schilka and is also a mountain river in full length.
  • The 2273 km long Aldan rises on the north side of the Stanowoigebirges, describes a wide arc around Yakutsk and reaches the Lena in the Mitteljakutischen lowlands .
  • The 872 km long Jana flows east of the Lena between Werchojansk mountains and Cherskigebirge . It originates from the union of Dulgalach and Sartang and is 1492 km long. The Jana region with the city of Verkhoyansk is considered (beside Oymyakon on the Indigirka) as a cold pole of Russia and the coldest inhabited area of he world.
  • The north of the Okhotsk Sea springing Indigirka is 1726 km, with its source river Chastach 1977 km long. More than half of it flows through the East Siberian highlands before it reaches the lowlands and then flows with a 100 km wide delta in the East Siberian Sea .
  • The more famous Kolyma , 2129 km long, rises in the same mountains and flows 400 km east of the Indigirka with a delta-like divided estuary. It drains 526,000 km² and its discharge averaged about 2728 m³ / s.

Siberian Rivers that flow into the Pacific

  • The Amur forms since 1858/1860 along with its source river Argun (1620 km) and its tributary Ussuri the largest part of the (East Asian) border between Russia and China. Below the Ussuri estuary, it flows northward only through Russian territory. The Amur is by name 2824 km long, with its source river Schilka (555 km) and its longer source river Onon (1032 km) hydrologically even 4411 km. Its main tributaries are from west to east:
  • The 1208 or 1242 km long Seja comes from the Stanowoigebirge in the north.
  • The 1927 km long Songhua Jiang , Russian Sungari , is located with its catchment area completely outside of Russia and drains the northern half of Manchuria and the extreme east of Inner Mongolia
  • The 588 km long Ussuri rises east of Vladivostok in the south of the Sikhote-Alin Mountains just a few kilometers from the coast and reaches the Amur at Khabarovsk .
  • The 1146 km long Anadyr is the easternmost current of the Old World and at the same time one of the northernmost. Its catchment area covers 191,000 km². It rises 50 km north of the Arctic Circle and flows after bogigem course 400 km as the crow flies southeast of its source with an estuary into the Bering Sea .